Microbiology September 2, 2009 Notes

*Vaccines: Make your body make a specific immune response against a specific pathogen (disease causing)
-Can be used against viruses and bacteria-borne illnesses
*Antibiotics: Drug that you ingest (NOT made by you) that will kill bacteria generally
-Cannot use an antibiotic against a virus (Not the same as bacteria)
-Cannot adapt to something, which is alive and able to change (i.e. bacteria)

—-Robert Koch believed that the bacterial world couldn’t change…which is untrue→ causes problems in medical field

*Archaea: Prokaryotes thought to have not changed much for billions of years
-More in common with Eukaryotes than bacteria (except for non-membrane bound nuclei)
~EX: RNA polymerase-identical RNA polymerase used by Eukaryotes
~RNA polymerase = Polymers of RNA (enzyme) → transcription
~DNA copied into RNA copy: Makes proteins your cells are made of
-No nucleus, like bacteria, but otherwise more similar to eukaryotic cells than to bacteria
~EX: Archaeal cell membrane chemistry like Eukaryotes
-Many live in extreme temperatures/environments (very hot/very salty/etc)
~EX: Geysers, ocean vents, very hot water (boiling), the Dead Sea
-Will likely not make you sick (considering your body is not an ‘extreme’)

*Bacteria
-Prokaryotes
-Distinct cell well, cell membrane structures not found in Archaea or Eukaryotes
-Distinct RNA polymerase
—Gram-Positive
-Minority of bacteria on Earth, but important clinically
-Basic Setup: Refer to other notes = Phospholipic bilayer
*Plasma Membrane
*Thick cell wall – Made out of Peptidoglycan
~Protein and Carbohydrate (sugar) components
~Upwards of 30 layers, which are cross-linked to each other
~Lipoteichoic Acid (LTA): Fatty acid linked for wall: Unique!
-Gram-Negative
*Plasma Membrane
*Petidoglycan layer (less thick – 4-5 walls)
*NO LTA in cell wall for cross linking

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