october 21 notes

October 21, 2009—notes
1) Proteins
a) Amino acids in a chain
• 20 different amino acids
 Different amino acids have different properties
b) Interactions between amino acids in protein give protein its shape and function
c) Denatured- means it has lost its shape—denaturing in permanent
d) Properties of amino acids and external environment of protein determine how amino acids interact, thus determine protein’s shape
• Interactions between amino acids changed by changes in pH, increase in temperature
2) DNA
a) Bases linked together via sugar-phosphate backbone
• 4 bases: cytosine, guanine—complementary: 3 hydrogen bonds
• : adenine, thymine—complementary: 2 hydrogen bonds
• Heating DNA doesn’t destroy bases linked( covalently) to sugar- phosphate backbone- but does break H-bonds between complementary bases, separating DNA strands
3) DNA replication
a) DNA polymerase—key enzyme that brings in bases complementary to DNA strand being copied, and links those bases into a new chain with a sugar-phosphate backbone
b) For DNA to begin being copied by DNA polymerase
• Must be “unzipped” from partner strand
• Must have DNA or RNA “primer” complementary to first few bases in strand being copied for DNA polymerase to bind to
4) Extremophilic bacteria( thermos aquaticus, live at 100 degrees Celsius)
5) Polymerase chain reaction(PCR)
a) Copy DNA

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