october 14th notes

Bacteria genetics
1. The discovery of DNA and the Griffith experiement (draw pictures)
Protiens: are made out of amino acids causing them to be very complex
20 animo acids make up proteins
Mailnly what living organisms are made out of
This is why proteins should be the molecule (of chemical containing instructions for how to make new organisms) of inheriatances
Simple only 4 bases
A tiny minority of stuff organisms are made of
Obs 1: Heat destroys protein but not DNA
Obs: S. pneumoniae bacteria can  pneumonia, blood infects in both people and in mice. Some S. pneumoniae have capsule, some don’t.
S. pneumonia with capsule look very glossy or shinny when growing on the agar.  kills mice if this is done
S. pneumonia without capsule (prevents bacteria from being engulfed by invaders like T4) look more rough/matte on agar.  could engulf the bacteria. Mice are ok.
Mice injected with boiled glossy bacteria will be ok because heat denatured proteins
Inject mouse with live rough bacteria and also with the boiled glossy bacteria mouse will have what instructions?
Hypothesis: Molecule of inheritance is protein
• If mouse dies, NOT protein
Hypothesis: Molecule of inheritance is DNA
• If the mouse lives, we cant rule out everything but could still be protein.
Mouse dies when injected with both.
Mouse cant have protein as the molecule of inheriatance.
When doing an autopsy on the dead mouse bacteria is everywhere and also if you take the blood from the dead mouse and plate that blood on an agar plates you see many colonies that are glossy.
Over weekend think about what happened to the rough bacteria in the dead mouse?
What is the moral of the Griffith experiment? Does it show that DNA is the “molecule of Inheriatance
2. Properties of DNA
a. Supercoiled: coiled and coiled and coiled more
b. Double-stranded with antiparallel strands – double helix
c. Complementary base-pairing  semiconservative replication – bind in a complementary basis and hook together is a sugar-phosphate backbone.

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