November 2 notes over exam review

Exam 2 Review
9) Protons fall across water wheel that spans the plasma membrane makes a Phosphate and then 3 phosphates with one Adenosine makes a ATP
Proton doesn’t equal protein
ATP synthase doesn’t equal flagellum
Will affect our cells may make holes in our cells membrane
Poke hole in mitochondrial membranes and ATP production. Will kill you
*mitochondria generate ATP
15) Come up with what you know about different antibiotics
a) – not used because while it prevents cross link it only does so in Gram (+) bacteria is large and can’t get through the membrane of gram (-) bacteria, good chance of not affecting bacteria
B, H – are broad spectrum antibiotics that will affect both gram (+) and gram (-) not circle if you note that don’t want to make inflammation worse.
C, D, E, G – all broad spectrum antibiotics – ok theoretical ok to treat inflection
Tetracycline – negative effects on baby
Isoniazid – only effective against acid fast bacteria
18) No growth on nutrient agar plate – because to high oxygen concentration
Stab wounds create an anaerobic environment
Lots of bacteria at bottom little at top. Grow well in anaerobic conditions
Grow in low oxygen environment
Simmon citrate un-interpretable
19) Targets of drugs? Bacterial Ribosomes, DNA gryrase, RNA polymerase – mutations to
Resistant to all things means it has an efflux pump.
Efflux Pump – pumps stuff out more rapidly than it can affect the bacteria
*multi drug resistance, all resistance against intercellular targets, Most likely cause is Efflux pumps
Pointers for Future Exams
• Pay attention strong correlation between facebooking in class and scoring under 70% on this exam
• Read textbook, especially when your professor says about 100 times and sends you an email about reading the textbook and how you should do it.
• Again the construction: “because…” + random information culled from the text of question is not a reason

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