November 16 Lecture Notes

November 16, 2009 Lecture Notes
Figures out of paper.

Moral of paper: collected bacterial isolates out of soil and did antibiotic susceptibility testing and found that a bunch of bacteria out of the soil showed antibiotic resistance.
C. perfringens
* dry, too mujch O2 – sigma factor to genes needed for spore formation needed for spore formation – leads to the transcription of spore genes which will then lead to the translation of spore proteins
* spores in moist environment, warm, low [O2] concentrations, vegetative sigma factors
- transcription of growth related genes (incl. phospholipase)
- translation of growth related proteins include phospholipase
a) Most viruses only have 1-2 host species there are some viruses that can infect multiple species of or similar species of animals mostly
i. Potentially eradicable:
a. Pathogen must require a host for its survival
b. That host has to be just humans
c. Must have solid vaccine or other preventative measure to prevent pathogen from spreading from host to host / breaking the chain of transmission – when a pathogen moves from one person to the next and so on
III) Viral shapes
Helical shape- many viruses that infect eukaryotic cells are this shape
Shape is tubular shape or like a string where there is an outside protein layer called a capsid ; and nucleic acids on the inside
Polyhedral shape: shaped like a soccer ball; also had a capsid outer protein layer surrounding its nucleic acids
** these shapes of viruses are both able to infect eukaryotic cells
Complex shape: short of a mesh of a polyhedral shape plus helical shapes; get a polyhedral shape attached to a bunch of helical shapes (looks like T4 phage)
** complex virus is only in bacteriophages

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