Microbiology Lecture Notes Sept. 2

Vaccines - make your body make a specific immune response against a aprticular kind of pathogen
Antibiotics - drug that you ingest (NOT made by you) that kills bacteria in general

- do not have a membrane bound nucleus
- Archaea
Do not have a membrane bound nucleus
Much more similar to eukaryotic cells minus not having a membrane bound nucleus
Cell membrane, RNA polymerase like that of eukaryotes
RNA polymerase much more genetically similar/identical to RNA polymerase made by eukaryotes
RNA polymerase is an enzyme that makes polymers of RNA
DNA is transcribed into RNA to which is translated into amino acid chains to make the essential proteins for survival
Archael cell membrane chemistry much like eukaryotes'
Phospholipid bilayer
Most of the archae we know about live in very extreme environments (extremely hot/cold)
Geysers, ocean vents, high temperature water, dead sea
Probably, Archaea can't make us sick because of the differences of the environment in our bodies versus their normal environment

- Bacteria
Prokaryotes; no membrane bound nucleus
Much more closely related to other bacteria than archaea or eykaryotes
Huge amount of genetic diversity among bacteria
Distinct cell wall, membrane structures not found in Archaea or Eukaryotes
Distinct RNA polymerase; not like that of Archaea or Eukaryotes
Bactericidal inhibits production of RNA polymerase
Gram-positive bacteria
Minority of bacteria on earth, but clinically important
Plasma membrane
Phospholipid bilayer
Peptidocglycan cell wall with lipoteichoic acid (LTA) outside plasma membrane
Made of carbohydrate sugar component and protein components
30+ layers thick
Cross-linked to eachother with lipotechoic acid (LTA)
Unique to only gram-positive bacteria

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