Lecture notes 9/25/09

Why don’t bacteria have mitochondria?
• Mitochondria make ATP by: using electron passes down proteins embedded in membrane to pump protons across inner membrane, to space between.
• Since H+ are charged, they can’t cross hydrophobic membranes just anywhere, protons fall across “water wheel”-like proteins in inner mitochondrial membrane to equalize H+ gradient

Why do eukaryotes have mitochondria
To make ATP efficiently
How do mitochondria make ATP
• Every time H+ falls across gate, “water wheel” spins, adding 1 phosphate to adenosine. 3 falling protons= 3 phosphates added= 1 ATP

V. Similarity to type three secretion systems
• These secretion systems are used to pump proteins outside of bacterial cells
o Ex: virulence factors (proteins that contribute to symptoms of disease, made by pathogenic bacteria) pumped directly into host cells thru type 3 secretion systems by pathogenic bacteria (disease-causing)
Answer the question on the bottom of the handout!


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