Exam Review Notes

John Snow & the Broad Street pump
broken pump handle showed that contaminated water was causing cholera, not the miasmas causing the cholera
Broad Morals of John Snow story:
knowing distribution of diseases cased allows determination of the cause of the disease
he made a map of cholera cases and majority were around the broken pump
a good scientific hypothesis is falsifiable - competeing hypothesis of miasmas was not
you need great evidence to convince people that the things/ideas they used to beieve were wrong
contaminated people's hands from cadavers were being transferred to women who were giving birth by the hands of the doctors
the death rate went down when handwashing was enforced
Pasteur's Swan-Necked Flask
trying to disprove sponataneous generation
sterile broth got oxygen but stayed sterile because the bacteria got caught in the neck of the flask
Drug mechanisms
Rifampin —> bacterial RNA polymerase
Ciproflaxin —> DNA gyrase
Beta-lactam (penicillins) —> peptidoglycan cell-wall making mechanism
Antibiotic mechanisms
affect things in bacteria that is characteristic to bacteria only NOT eukaryotes
can affect your normal flora
antiseptics kill everything! including our cells as do disinfectants if ingested
Lab Practical
aseptic technique
gram staining slide
streaking broth onto a plate
Gram stain slide
if the bacteria comes out of a test tube it is 1/2 gram positive and 1/2 gram negative
if plates they will say gram positive or gram negative
can use as many slides as we want to
take test while letting things sit on the slide

asked to interpret results of a Kirby Bauer test - measure zones of inhibition
interpret serial dilution test using the math portion of what we did in lab
interpret results of EMB and MSA augers
know all of Koch's postulates
multiple answer questions no questions where nothing is circled

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