C. botulinum: Reservoir=soil
* Since reservoir is soil, almost certainly botulism toxin for improving bacterial survival in soil, NOT for killing people.
Vibrio Cholerae: Gram negative rod. Can live in salt water or freshwater. Sensitive to acid. Human must ingest a lot at one time to get sick.
*When growing, produce cholera toxin. Cholera toxin makes epithelial cells pump NaCl out; because of osmosis, water follows.
Cholera Symptoms: Lots. . More than 2 gallons a day of watery diarrhea.
iii.) Cystic Fibrosis: Super sticky mucus in lungs because can't ship NaCl out of epithelial cells, so H20 can't follow.
*Heterozygote advantage: If you have 1 CF allele, 1 normal allele, protected against cholera, and don't have CF.
iv.) Copepods: Arthropods that travel saltwater —> freshwater; reservoir for cholera
*V. cholera = necessary normal flora for copepods - copepods would die with out cholera toxin.
S. Pyogenes: Gm positive streptococci —> "strep throat" * Used to cause scarlet fever. * Aggressive quarantine measures —> Changed evolution of S. pyogenes so that lost scarlet fever virulence factors.