acinetobacter baumannii

two references articles for my policy paper:

Distinct Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns and Antimicrobial
Resistance-Harboring Genes According to Genomic
Species of Acinetobacter Isolates
Yu Mi Lim,1 Kyeong Seob Shin,2 and Jungmin Kim1*
Department of Microbiology, Kyungpook National University, School of Medicine, Daegu 700-422,1 and Department of
Laboratory Medicine, College of Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-711,2 Republic of Korea
Received 31 July 2006/Returned for modification 28 September 2006/Accepted 13 December 2006
Using 58 isolates of Acinetobacter species recovered from a university hospital between August 2004 and
March 2005, we performed genomic identification by amplified rRNA gene restriction analysis (ARDRA) and
investigated the existence of metallo--lactamase (MBL) producers and extended-spectrum -lactamase
(ESBL) producers. Genomic species identification of Acinetobacter strains using ARDRA showed that 40 strains
were genomic species 2 (Acinetobacter baumannii), 9 were 13 sensu Tjernberg and Ursing (13TU), 5 were
Acinetobacter phenon 6/ct 13TU, and 4 were Acinetobacter genospecies 3. Among 58 strains, 13 isolates were
MBL producers carrying blaIMP-1 or blaVIM-2 and 13 isolates were ESBL producers carrying blaPER-1. Notably,
the MBL producers were mostly 13TU, Acinetobacter phenon 6/ct 13TU, and Acinetobacter genospecies 3, which
showed susceptibility to ciprofloxacin and ampicillin-sulbactam. However, 12 of 13 strains carrying blaPER-1
were A. baumannii, showing multidrug resistance. The data revealed that the antimicrobial resistance patterns
and resistance-harboring genes of Acinetobacter species are remarkably distinct according to the genomic
species of Acinetobacter isolates.

Survival of Acinetobacter baumannii on Dry Surfaces
Institute for Hygiene1 and Working Group on Epidemiology, Institute for Social Medicine2
Free University Berlin, 12203 Berlin, Germany
Received 12 November 1996/Returned for modification 12 February 1997/Accepted 17 March 1997
Acinetobacter spp. have frequently been reported to be the causative agents of hospital outbreaks. The
circumstances of some outbreaks demonstrated the long survival of Acinetobacter in a dry, inanimate environment.
In laboratory experiments, we compared the abilities of five Acinetobacter baumannii strains, three
Acinetobacter sp. strains from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC), one Escherichia coli ATCC strain,
and one Enterococcus faecium ATCC strain to survive under dry conditions. Bacterial solutions of the 10 strains
were inoculated onto four different material samples (ceramic, polyvinyl chloride, rubber, and stainless steel)
and stored under defined conditions. We investigated the bacterial counts of the material samples immediately
after inoculation, after drying, and after 4 h, 1 day, and 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 weeks of storage. A statistical model
was used to distribute the 40 resulting curves among four types of survival curves. The type of survival curve
was significantly associated with the bacterial strain but not with the material. The ability of the A. baumannii
strains to survive under dry conditions varied greatly and correlated well with the source of the strain. Strains
isolated from dry sources survived better than those isolated from wet sources. An outbreak strain that had
caused hospital-acquired respiratory tract infections survived better than the strains from wet sources, but not
as well as strains from dry sources. Resistance to dry conditions may promote the transmissibility of a strain,
but it is not sufficient to make a strain an epidemic one. However, in the case of an outbreak, sources of
Acinetobacter must be expected in the dry environment.

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